Sauce Publications

 

sauce d: Latest results from PubMed
  1. HIV infection has become a chronic disease, with a lower mortality, but a consequent increase in age-related noninfectious comorbidities. Metabolic disorders have been linked to the effect of cART as well to the effects of immune activation and chronic inflammation. Whereas it is known that aging is intrinsically associated with hyperinflammation and immune system deterioration, the relative impact of chronic HIV infection on such inflammatory and immune activation has not yet been studied...
  2. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct cytokine profiles are observed in association with COVID-19 severity and are differentially predictive of mortality according to oxygen support modalities. These results warrant personalized treatment of COVID-19 patients based on cytokine profiling.
  3. Background: Hip fracture (HF) is common in the geriatric population and is associated with a poor vital and functional prognosis which could be impacted by immunological changes. The objective here is to decipher immune changes occurring in the 1st days following HF and determine how phenotype, function, and regulation of innate and adaptive compartments adapt during acute stress event. Methods: We included HF patients, aged over 75 years. For each patient, blood samples were taken at five...
  4. CONCLUSIONS: In these highly selected HIV-positive ART-controlled males, 2 novel metabolites derived from tryptophan catabolism, indole-3-acetate and quinolinate, were associated with c-IMT and its progression.
  5. As T lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate in vivo or in vitro, their functional capacity can change dramatically. In particular, extensive cell division is often associated with telomere shortening and the onset of cellular senescence, thus impacting the proliferative potential of the cells. Telomere length and integrity represent therefore key molecular markers of the status and aging of the cells. To assess these markers, we established qPCR-based methods to measure telomere length as...
  6. CONCLUSION: HIV-infected young adults can present increased markers of immune activation and senescence, related to uncontrolled viral replication. This highlights the issue of noncompliance to antiretroviral therapy in patients at a young age, resulting in loss of viral control, premature immunosenescence, and potentially irreversible damage of their lymphopoietic system.
  7. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infects >90% of the population and establishes a latent infection with asymptomatic episodes of reactivation. However, HHV-6 reactivation is associated with morbidity and sometimes mortality in immunocompromised patients. To date, control of the virus in healthy virus carriers and the failure to control it in patients with disease remain poorly understood. In particular, knowledge of HHV-6-specific T-cell responses is limited. Here, we characterized HHV-6A- and...
  8. Upon cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, large T-cell responses are elicited that remain high or even increase over time, a phenomenon named memory T-cell inflation. Besides, the maintained robust T-cell response, CMV-specific T cells seem to have a distinctive phenotype, characterized by an advanced differentiation state. Here, we will review this "special" differentiation status by discussing the cellular phenotype based on the expression of CD45 isoforms, costimulatory, inhibitory and natural...
  9. αβ CD8^(+), γδ, and NK lymphocytes are fundamental effector cells against viruses and tumors. These cells can be divided into multiple subsets according to their phenotype. Based on progressive telomere attrition from naive to late effector memory cells, human CD8^(+) T cell subsets have been positioned along a pathway of differentiation, which is also considered as a process of lymphocyte aging or senescence. A similar categorization has not been clearly established for γδ and NK cell...
  10. Major progress in preventing, delaying or curing various pathologies normally encountered in old age results in a continuous improvement in life expectancy. However, understanding the underlying cause of the disparate comorbidities occurrence with aging remains a priority in order to propose adapted care for the older population. In one hand, aging profoundly impairs the immune system; it is characterized by many changes in haematopoiesis, adaptive and innate systems, and is associated with...
  11. The maintenance of effective immunity over time is dependent on the capacity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to sustain the pool of immunocompetent mature cells. Decline of immune competence with old age may stem from HSC defects, including reduced self-renewal potential and impaired lymphopoiesis, as suggested in murine models. To obtain further insights into aging-related alteration of hematopoiesis, we performed a comprehensive study of blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from...
  12. Life expectancy is continuously increasing due to major progress in preventing, delaying or curing various pathologies normally encountered in old age. However, both scientific and medical advances are still required to understand underlying cause of the disparate comorbidities occurrence with aging. In one hand, aging profoundly impairs the immune system; it is characterized by many changes in haematopoiesis, adaptive and innate systems, associated with pro-inflammatory environment. In another...
  13. A paradox is a seemingly absurd or impossible concept, proposition, or theory that is often difficult to understand or explain, sometimes apparently self-contradictory, and yet ultimately correct or true. How is it possible, for example, that oxygen "a toxic environmental poison" could be also indispensable for life (Beckman and Ames Physiol Rev 78(2):547-81, 1998; Stadtman and Berlett Chem Res Toxicol 10(5):485-94, 1997)?: the so-called Oxygen Paradox (Davies and Ursini 1995; Davies Biochem Soc...
  14. Our society faces a major challenge concerning management of the health and socio-economic burden caused by acute physical stress in the older population (+75years). In particular, hip-fracture surgery (HFS) represents a major health care preoccupation, affecting 1.6 million patients worldwide, resulting in a significant drop in life quality and autonomy. The trauma is associated with 20-30% one-year mortality in the elderly. In the present study, we aim to identify factors, which influence...
  15. Approximately 50% of individuals aged 6-49 years in the United States are infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV), with seroprevalence increasing with age, reaching 85-90% by 75-80 years according to Bate et al. (Clin Infect Dis 50 (11): 1439-1447, 2010) and Pawelec et al. (Curr Opin Immunol 24:507-511, 2012). Following primary infection, CMV establishes lifelong latency with periodic reactivation. Immunocompetent hosts experience largely asymptomatic infection, but CMV can cause serious illness in...
  16. Major advances in preventing, delaying, or curing individual pathologies are responsible for an increasingly long life span in the developed parts of our planet, and indeed reaching eight to nine decades of life is nowadays extremely frequent. However, medical and sanitary advances have not prevented or delayed the underlying cause of the disparate pathologies occurring in the elderly: aging itself. The identification of the basis of the aging processes that drives the multiple pathologies and...
  17. Compared with HIV-1, HIV-2 infection is characterized by a larger proportion of slow or nonprogressors. A better understanding of HIV-2 pathogenesis should open new therapeutic avenues to establish control of HIV-1 replication in infected patients. In this study, we studied the production of CD8(+) T cells and their capacity for viral control in HIV-2 controllers from the French ANRS CO5 HIV-2 cohort. HIV-2 controllers display a robust capacity to support long-term renewal of the CD8(+) T cell...
  18. Understanding the factors that delineate the efficacy of T-cell responses towards pathogens is crucial for our ability to develop potent therapies and vaccines against infectious diseases, such as HIV. Here we show that a recently developed analytical tool, the polyfunctionality index (PI), not only enables prediction of protection after vaccination against HIV, but also allows identification of the immunological pathways involved. Our data suggest that induction of a synergistic network of...
  19. Many of the alterations that affect innate and adaptive immune cell compartments in HIV-infected patients are reminiscent of the process of immune aging, characteristic of old age. These alterations define the immunological age of individuals and are likely to participate to the decline of immune competence with HIV disease progression. It is therefore important to characterize these changes, which point toward the accumulation of highly differentiated immunocompetent cells, associated with...
  20. The aim of our study was to analyze polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) functions in elderly individuals compared with those in healthy young participants, directly in whole blood to avoid issues with data interpretation related to cell isolation procedures. Despite the presence of increased circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, resting PMNs from the elderly individuals were not activated as shown by normal CD62L and CD11b expression at the PMN surface and normal constitutive reactive...
  21. NK cells are key players in the fight against persistent viruses. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is associated with the presence of a population of CD16(+) CD56(dim) NKG2C(+) NK cells in both acutely and latently infected individuals. Here, we studied the nature of these terminally differentiated NK cells in different human populations infected with HCMV: healthy donors stratified by age, thymectomized individuals, pregnant women suffering from primary CMV infection, and lung transplant...
  22. Aging is associated with impaired vaccine efficacy and increased susceptibility to infectious and malignant diseases. CD8(+) T-cells are key players in the immune response against pathogens and tumors. In aged mice, the dwindling naïve CD8(+) T-cell compartment is thought to compromise the induction of de novo immune responses, but no experimental evidence is yet available in humans. Here, we used an original in vitro assay based on an accelerated dendritic cell coculture system in unfractioned...
  23. No abstract
  24. CONCLUSIONS: Our study presents a generalizable methodology to objectively evaluate the impact of polyfunctionality on T cell efficacy. We show that T cell polyfunctionality is a superior correlate of T cell efficacy both in vitro and in vivo as compared with response size. Therefore, future immunotherapies should aim to increase T cell polyfunctionality.
  25. CONCLUSION: In HIV-infected individuals at low cardiovascular disease risk, our data show that the increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis is not associated with immunological markers described to be associated with HIV disease progression.
  26. CONCLUSION: The present data support the rationale of vitamin D supplementation in the routine clinical management of HIV-1-infected patients, in order to decrease immune activation levels and possibly improve long-term survival.
  27. Immunosenescence, defined as the age-associated dysregulation and dysfunction of the immune system, is characterized by impaired protective immunity and decreased efficacy of vaccines. An increasing number of immunological, clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that persistent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with accelerated aging of the immune system and with several age-related diseases. However, current evidence on whether and how human CMV (HCMV) infection is implicated...
  28. When encountering foreign antigens, naïve T cells become activated and differentiate into effector and memory T cells. They represent therefore the primary source to mount an immune response against pathogens or tumors. Recent evidence of both quantitative and qualitative alterations of naïve T cells has accumulated in aged mice, indicating that the successful generation of primary T cell responses from the naïve T cell pool may be compromised with old age. However, the vast majority of the data...
  29. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data emphasize the central role of the TCR as a determinant of CD8⁺ T-cell efficacy and demonstrate that the complexities of antigen recognition across epitope and HLA class I boundaries can confound simple relationships between TCR engagement and HIV suppression.
  30. No abstract
  31. γδ T cells represent a subset of unconventional T lymphocytes that are known for their reactivity against different pathogens and considered as intermediate mediators between adaptive and innate immunity. We provide in this paper further insights underlying the changes that affect the γδ T cell compartment with advanced age in humans. We show that both aging and CMV infection impact independently on the γδ T cell compartment. Most γδ T cells are significantly affected by age and present a...
  32. Lung transplantation is the definitive treatment for terminal respiratory disease, but the associated mortality rate is high. Acute rejection of the transplanted lung is a key determinant of adverse prognosis. Furthermore, an epidemiological relationship has been established between the occurrence of acute lung rejection and cytomegalovirus infection. However, the reasons for this association remain unclear. Here, we performed a longitudinal characterization of CMV-specific T-cell responses and...
  33. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The pathogenesis of HIV infection is highly complex and involves numerous actors of the immune system. On the one hand, our immunity has a predominant role in limiting HIV replication and the depletion of its targets, but on the other hand, the persistent infection established by the virus is associated with chronic immune activation and inflammation, potentially resulting in the progressive exhaustion of the host immune resources, and in the onset of non-AIDS-defining...
  34. Reduced thymopoiesis and continuous mobilization of naive T cells into the effector-memory pool can lead to severe alterations of the naive T cell compartment. However, maintenance of the naive T cell population is essential to mount effective immune responses. Evidence of homeostatic regulation of naive T cells is currently debated in animal models. In humans, the situation remains unresolved, in particular with advanced age. In this study, we analyzed the CD4(+) and CD8(+) naive T cell...
  35. Alone among herpesviruses, persistent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) markedly alters the numbers and proportions of peripheral immune cells in infected-vs-uninfected people. Because the rate of CMV infection increases with age in most countries, it has been suggested that it drives or at least exacerbates "immunosenescence". This contention remains controversial and was the primary subject of the Third International Workshop on CMV & Immunosenescence which was held in Cordoba, Spain, 15-16th March, 2012....
  36. Functional evaluation of naturally occurring or vaccination-induced T cell responses in mice, men and monkeys has in recent years advanced from single-parameter (e.g. IFN-γ-secretion) to much more complex multidimensional measurements. Co-secretion of multiple functional molecules (such as cytokines and chemokines) at the single-cell level is now measurable due primarily to major advances in multiparametric flow cytometry. The very extensive and complex datasets generated by this technology...
  37. The Second International Workshop on CMV & Immunosenescence was held in Cambridge, UK, 2-4th December, 2010. The presentations covered four separate sessions: cytomegalovirus and T cell phenotypes; T cell memory frequency, inflation and immunosenescence; cytomegalovirus in aging, mortality and disease states; and the immunobiology of cytomegalovirus-specific T cells and effects of the virus on vaccination. This commentary summarizes the major findings of these presentations and references...
  38. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) pathology has long been associated with an increased Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) seropositivity, viremia and cross-reactive serum antibodies specific for both virus and self. It has therefore been postulated that EBV triggers SLE immunopathology, although the mechanism remains elusive. Here, we investigate whether frequent peaks of EBV viral load in SLE patients are a consequence of dysfunctional anti-EBV CD8+ T cell responses. Both inactive and active SLE...
  39. The thymus is responsible for the maturation of lymphoid precursors into T cells, and is necessary to establish the T cell pool during prenatal and early postnatal life in humans. With the years, it undergoes a natural shrinking process, referred to as involution, suspected to be central in the decline of immune competence with aging, or immunosenescence. Here, we review the recent studies focusing on the immunological consequences of abnormal thymic development and thymectomy shortly after...
  40. The ontogenic relationship between pro-inflammatory populations of interleukin-17 (IL-17A)- and/or IL-22-producing T cells and other T-cell subsets is currently unclear in humans. To appreciate T helper cell-lineage commitment, we combined cytokine production profiles of in vitro expanded T-cell clones with T-cell receptor (TCR) clonotypic signatures. Moreover, ex vivo cytokine production profiles at the single-cell level were analyzed using an original approach based on the hierarchical cluster...
  41. The mechanisms of CD4(+) T-cell count decline, the hallmark of HIV disease progression, and its relationship to elevated levels of immune activation are not fully understood. Massive depletion of CD4(+) T cells occurs during the course of HIV-1 infection, so that maintenance of adequate CD4(+) T-cell levels probably depends primarily on the capacity to renew depleted lymphocytes, that is, the lymphopoiesis. We performed here a comprehensive study of quantitative and qualitative attributes of...
  42. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings indicate that HIV-1 infection amplifies the effect of age on naive T-cell levels, and highlight the constraint on the capacity of treated patients to reconstitute their CD4(+) T-cell compartment due to age and CMV co-infection.
  43. No abstract
  44. The thymus is the major site of T cell production and a key organ of the immune system. Its natural involution during the course of life has cast doubts as to its importance for the integrity of our immunity in adulthood. We provide here an overview of the recent works focusing on the immunological evaluation of subjects thymectomized during early childhood due to cardiac surgery of congenital heart defects. These studies represent new advances in our appreciation of the role of the thymus in...
  45. While the thymus is known to be essential for the initial production of T cells during early life, its contribution to immune development remains a matter of debate. In fact, during cardiac surgery in newborns, the thymus is completely resected to enable better access to the heart to correct congenital heart defects, suggesting that it may be dispensable during childhood and adulthood. Here, we show that young adults thymectomized during early childhood exhibit an altered T cell compartment....

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