Gorochov Publications

 

gorochov g: Latest results from PubMed
  1. CONCLUSIONS: Gut and systemic microbiota/immune homeostasis are perturbed in MS. Our results argue that defective IgA responses in MS are linked to a breakdown of systemic tolerance to gut microbiota leading to an enhanced triggering of systemic IgG immunity against gut commensals occurring early in MS.
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  4. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct cytokine profiles are observed in association with COVID-19 severity and are differentially predictive of mortality according to oxygen support modalities. These results warrant personalized treatment of COVID-19 patients based on cytokine profiling.
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  6. CONCLUSIONS: PE efficiently removes autoantibodies against type I IFNs, including those detected in tracheal aspirates, without affecting anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels, in patients with life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. The clinical benefit of PE in patients with autoantibodies against type I IFNs should be tested in a larger study.
  7. There are only few data concerning persistence of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) among SARS-CoV-2-infected healthcare workers (HCW). These individuals are particularly exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection and at potential risk of reinfection. We followed 26 HCW with mild COVID-19 three weeks (D21), two months (M2) and three months (M3) after the onset of symptoms. All the HCW had anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgA at D21, decreasing to 38.5% at M3 (p < 0.0001). Concomitantly a significant...
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  9. Humoral immune responses are typically characterized by primary IgM antibody responses followed by secondary antibody responses associated with immune memory and composed of IgG, IgA, and IgE. Here, we measured acute humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2, including the frequency of antibody-secreting cells and the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies in the serum, saliva, and bronchoalveolar fluid of 159 patients with COVID-19. Early SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral responses were...
  10. CONCLUSIONS: Fungi-Flow allows an easy and reliable measure of personalized humoral responses against commensal fungi. Combining sequencing technology with our novel Fungi-Flow immunological method, we propose that there are at least two defined ecosystems in the human gut mycobiome associated with systemic humoral responses. Fungi-Flow opens new opportunities to improve our knowledge about the impact of mycobiota in humoral anti-commensal immunity and homeostasis. Video Abstract.
  11. Regulatory T (Treg) cells expressing the FOXP3 transcription factor are presently under investigation by many teams globally as a cellular therapy to induce tolerance in transplantation. This is primarily due to their immunosuppressive and homeostatic functions. Depending on the type of allograft, Treg cells will need to infiltrate and function in metabolically diverse microenvironments. This means that any resident and circulating Treg cells need to differentially adapt to counter acute or...
  12. Interindividual clinical variability in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is vast. We report that at least 101 of 987 patients with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia had neutralizing immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies (auto-Abs) against interferon-ω (IFN-ω) (13 patients), against the 13 types of IFN-α (36), or against both (52) at the onset of critical disease; a few also had auto-Abs against the other three type...
  13. Clinical outcome upon infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) ranges from silent infection to lethal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We have found an enrichment in rare variants predicted to be loss-of-function (LOF) at the 13 human loci known to govern Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)- and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7)-dependent type I interferon (IFN) immunity to influenza virus in 659 patients with life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia relative to 534...
  14. BACKGROUND: Extensive efforts have been made in optimizing monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies for use in clinical practice. Accumulating evidence suggests that IgA or anti-FcαRI could also represent an exciting avenue toward novel therapeutic strategies.
  15. Background: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease (GD) are autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITDs). These conditions have been associated to abnormalities in circulating regulatory T cells (Tregs). We postulated that immune perturbations could be more pronounced at the thyroid tissue level. Methods: The phenotype of PBMCs and immune cells infiltrating thyroid tissue from 19 patients with HT, 21 patients with GD, and 30 controls has been analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: We report that...
  16. The induction of graft tolerance remains the holy grail of transplantation. This is important as chronic allograft dysfunction and the side effects of immunosuppression regimens place a major burden on the lives of transplant patients and their healthcare systems. This has mandated the need to understand the immunobiology of graft rejection and identify novel therapeutics. Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in modulating pro-inflammatory microenvironments and maintaining tissue...
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  18. In humans, several grams of IgA are secreted every day in the intestinal lumen. While only one IgA isotype exists in mice, humans secrete IgA1 and IgA2, whose respective relations with the microbiota remain elusive. We compared the binding patterns of both polyclonal IgA subclasses to commensals and glycan arrays and determined the reactivity profile of native human monoclonal IgA antibodies. While most commensals are dually targeted by IgA1 and IgA2 in the small intestine, IgA1+IgA2+ and...
  19. CONCLUSION: Maintenance of long term 5 mg prednisone in SLE patients with inactive disease prevents relapse.
  20. CONCLUSION: Direct serum IFN-α assessment with highly sensitive digital immunoassay permits clinicians to identify a subgroup of SLE patients, clinically in remission, but at higher risk of relapse.
  21. The human intestine is densely colonized with commensal microbes that stimulate the immune system. While secretory Immunoglobulin (Ig) A is known to play a crucial role in gut microbiota compartmentalization, secretory IgM, and systemic IgG have recently been highlighted in host-microbiota interactions as well. In this review, we discuss important aspects of secretory IgA biology, but rather than focusing on mechanistic aspects of IgA impact on microbiota, we stress the current knowledge of...
  22. The design of immunogens susceptible to elicit potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains a veritable challenge in the course of vaccine development. Viral envelope proteins adopt different conformational states during the entry process, allowing the presentation of transient neutralizing epitopes. We focused on the highly conserved 3S motif of gp41, which is exposed to the surface envelope in its trimeric prefusion state....
  23. CD4^(+) regulatory T cells (T(reg) ) expressing the forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) transcription factor (T(regs) ) are instrumental for the prevention of autoimmune diseases. There is increasing evidence that the human T regulatory population is highly heterogeneous in phenotype and function. Numerous studies conducted in human autoimmune diseases have shown that T(reg) cells are impaired either in their suppressive function, in number, or both. However, the contribution of the FOXP3^(+) T(reg)...
  24. Worldwide there are about 1.7 billion individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and only 5% to 15% will develop active tuberculosis (TB). It is recommended to treat only those most at risk of developing active TB to avoid problems of drug resistance. LTBI diagnosis involves reviewing the individual's medical history, physical examination, and biological tests. Interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) can yield "undeterminate" or "uncertain" results, which makes clinical management...
  25. CONCLUSION: Secretory IgA and systemic IgG converge to target gut microbiota at the cellular level. SIgAd-associated inflammation is inversely correlated with systemic anticommensal IgG responses, which might serve as a second line of defense. We speculate that patients with SIgAd could benefit from oral IgA supplementation. Our data also suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin preparations can be supplemented with IgG from IgA-deficient patient pools to offer better protection against gut...
  26. CONCLUSION: Direct serum IFNα determination with a highly sensitive assay might improve monitoring of clinical SLE activity and selection of the best candidates for anti-IFNα treatment.
  27. In a recently published article we report the metagenomic analysis of human gut microbiomes evolved in the absence of immunoglobulin A (IgA). We show that human IgA deficiency is not associated with massive quantitative perturbations of gut microbial ecology. While our study underlines a rather expected pathobiont expansion, we at the same time highlight a less expected depletion in some typically beneficial symbionts. We also show that IgM partially supply IgA deficiency, explaining the...
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  29. Paradoxically, loss of immunoglobulin A (IgA), one of the most abundant antibodies, does not irrevocably lead to severe infections in humans but rather is associated with relatively mild respiratory infections, atopy, and autoimmunity. IgA might therefore also play covert roles, not uniquely associated with control of pathogens. We show that human IgA deficiency is not associated with massive quantitative perturbations of gut microbial ecology. Metagenomic analysis highlights an expected...
  30. FOXP3-expressing CD4^(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells are instrumental for the maintenance of self-tolerance. They are also involved in the prevention of allergy, allograft rejection, foetal rejection during pregnancy and of exaggerated immune response towards commensal pathogens in mucosal tissues. They can also prevent immune responses against tumors and promote tumor progression. FOXP3-expressing Treg cells are not a homogenous population. The different subsets of Treg cells can have different...
  31. FOXP3^(+) regulatory T cell (Treg) based cellular therapies represent promising therapeutic options in autoimmunity, allergy, transplantation and prevention of Graft Versus Host (GVH) Disease. Among human FOXP3-expressing CD4^(+)T cells, only the CD45RA^(+) naïve Treg (nTreg) subset is suitable for in vitro expansion. However, FoxP3 expression decays in cells using currently described culture protocols. Rapamycin alone was not able to prevent FOXP3 loss in nTregs cells, as only a half of them...
  32. Genetic evolution of multicellular organisms occurred as a response to environmental challenges, in particular competition for nutrients, climatic change, physical and chemical stressors and pathogens. However organism fitness depends on both the efficiency of its defences and its capacities for benefiting from its symbiotic organisms. Indeed microbes not only engender pathogenies, but enable efficient uptake of host non-self biodegradable nutriments. Furthermore, microbes play an important role...
  33. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and the non-LCH neoplasm Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) are heterogeneous neoplastic disorders marked by infiltration of pathologic macrophage-, dendritic cell-, or monocyte-derived cells in tissues driven by recurrent mutations activating MAPK signaling. Although recent data indicate that at least a proportion of LCH and ECD patients have detectable activating kinase mutations in circulating hematopoietic cells and bone marrow-based hematopoietic progenitors,...
  34. Analysis of antigen-specific T cells can be confounded by T cell activation in vitro.
  35. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to UW, SCOT 15 decreases systemic cytokine release resulting from graft ischemia-reperfusion injury and reduces incidence of postreperfusion syndrome and postoperative renal failure.
  36. In humans, parturition is currently viewed as an intrauterine outbreak of inflammation, accompanied by a massive release of proinflammatory cytokines at the maternal-fetal interface that comprises the maternal decidua, placenta, and fetal membranes. At term, fetal membranes overlying the cervix, the future site of rupture, show altered morphology and are termed the zone of altered morphology (ZAM). These alterations occur in normal fetal membranes during late pregnancy, in preparation for labor....
  37. CONCLUSIONS: The new ESID definition for CVID still fails to exclude a large number of patients with severe T-cell defect. We propose a new definition (DEFI 2015) that excluded more patients with a T-cell defect and consider these patients as LOCID. This population has a poor outcome and should be considered as a distinct group requiring specific care.
  38. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic evolution of multicellular organisms has occurred in response to environmental challenges, including competition for nutrients, climate change, physical and chemical stressors, and pathogens. However, fitness of an organism is dependent not only on defense efficacy, but also on the ability to take advantage of symbiotic organisms. Indeed, microbes not only encompass pathogenicity, but also enable efficient nutrient uptake from diets nondegradable by the host itself....
  39. Antibacterial antibody responses that target surfaces of live bacteria or secreted toxins are likely to be relevant in controlling bacterial pathogenesis. The ability to specifically quantify bacterial-surface-binding antibodies is therefore highly attractive as a quantitative correlate of immune protection. Here, binding of antibodies from various body fluids to pure-cultured live bacteria is made visible with fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibodies and measured by flow cytometry. We...
  40. Chemokines and their receptors play an important role in cell trafficking and recruitment. The CCR6 chemokine receptor, selectively expressed on leukocyte populations, has been shown to play a deleterious role in the pathogenesis of various chronic inflammatory diseases and, as such, may constitute a prime target in the development of immunotherapeutic treatment. However, to date no neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for this chemokine receptor have been reported, whereas...
  41. Understanding the factors that delineate the efficacy of T-cell responses towards pathogens is crucial for our ability to develop potent therapies and vaccines against infectious diseases, such as HIV. Here we show that a recently developed analytical tool, the polyfunctionality index (PI), not only enables prediction of protection after vaccination against HIV, but also allows identification of the immunological pathways involved. Our data suggest that induction of a synergistic network of...
  42. Regulatory T cells (Treg) may play an important role in operational (clinical) tolerance (OT), a stable graft function without immunosuppression in an otherwise immunocompetent host, that is spontaneously observed in some patients many years after transplantation. Several ongoing clinical trials are currently testing the effects of donor-specific or non-specific Treg infusion with the goal to induce this state of OT a few months after liver transplantation (LT). The preliminary results of two of...
  43. Phage display technology, which allows extremely rare ligands to be selected from libraries of variants according to user-defined selection criteria, has made a huge impact on the life sciences. In this chapter, we describe phage display methods for the discovery of chemokine analogs with enhanced pharmacological properties. We discuss strategies for chemokine library design and provide a recommended technique for library construction. We also describe cell-based library selection approaches...
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  45. CONCLUSION: IV high dose MP induces a rapid, dramatic and transient increase in circulating regulatory T cells. This increase may participate in the preventive effect of MP on subsequent flares in SLE.
  46. Targeting viral entry is the most likely gene therapy strategy to succeed in protecting the immune system from pathogenic HIV-1 infection. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a gene transfer lentiviral vector expressing a combination of viral entry inhibitors, the C46 peptide (an inhibitor of viral fusion) and the P2-CCL5 intrakine (a modulator of CCR5 expression), to prevent CD4⁺ T-cell infection in vivo. For this, we used two different models of HIV-1-infected mice, one in which ex vivo...
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  48. UV light and some medications are known to trigger lupus erythematosus (LE). A common mechanism underlying the immunopathologic effect, resulting from exposure to these two seemingly unrelated factors, remains unknown. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays a key role in the regulation of IL-22 production in humans and can be activated by both xenobiotics and naturally occurring photoproducts. A significant expansion of Th17 and Th22 cells was observed in the peripheral blood of active...
  49. Granulomatous lymphomatosis is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven B cell proliferation associated with an exuberant CD4(+) T cell reaction with usually histopathological pictures of angiocentrism. So far, the characteristics of CD4(+) T cells in granulomatous lymphomatosis and the mechanism leading to their expansion remain poorly explored. We report a 56-year-old female with a past history of cold agglutinin disease, which was successfully treated with 4 weekly infusions of rituximab. She...
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